AIOU Course Code 5644-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

Course: Library Automation, Information Storage & Retrieval-II (5644)

Level: MLIS                                                                          Semester: Autumn, 2021


Q.1 Compare online and offline databases with examples.



  • Library databases allow you to efficiently search for published information such as magazine, journal, and newspaper articles. Library databases can be general (all disciplines) or discipline-specific (e.g. a psychology database).
  • Reliable – Many articles found in library databases have undergone a peer review process and are generally more reliable than information found on the Internet. Additionally, databases provide all the information you need to evaluate a source for credibility (such as author name, publication details, and a summary).
  • Relevant – Library databases allow you to customize your search to get the most relevant results. You can search using keywords, discipline-specific terminology, subject headings, and descriptors. You can also search by author, title, and limit your results using various criteria (date, source type, etc.).
  • Accessible – Databases often provide access to the full-text of an article so you do not need to go to the library to retrieve it in person. Additionally, database access is purchased by libraries for its patrons which allows you to access otherwise pricey information at no charge.

What databases does the Undergraduate Library recommend for getting started?

  • Academic Search Ultimate – Great general database to find articles on most topics.
  • Find Articles Guide – Need a more focused database? Find a list of the Undergraduate Library’s top-recommended discipline-specific databases here.

Search Engines

What is a search engine?

  • A search engine, such as Google or Yahoo!, uses computer algorithms to search the Internet and identify items that match the characters and keywords entered by a user.

Why use a search engine?

  • Search engines are useful for finding information produced by governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. Examples of reliable information you can find through a search engine include freely available statistics published by a government agency or a freely available article published by a reputable news outlet.
  • Note: It is more challenging to narrow results effectively, find relevant material, and assess the legitimacy of information in your search results when using a search engine.

How do I know when I should use a search engine and when I should use a database?

  • It depends on what type of information you are hoping to find and how you plan to use it. If you want credible, scholarly articles, you will have more success finding relevant sources in a library database free of charge. If you want Census data, it is more efficient to find that through a search engine that guides you to the appropriate government website.

What’s the difference between a database, a search engine, and Wikipedia? (Accessible View)


Examples of databases include: Academic Search Ultimate, PsycINFO, etc.

Databases are usually a collection of published journals and magazine articles, dissertations, reviews, and abstracts

The benefits of databases:

  • Purchased by the library
  • Search for information in an organized collection
  • More relevant results
  • Information is stable
  • Content is reviewed and recommended by librarians

What to look out for with databases:

  • Terminology and depth of articles may be difficult to understand
  • Information may be dated. Though, it helps to sort results by date.
  • Can be narrow in topic

Search Engines

Examples of search engines include: Google, Yahoo, etc.

Search engines utilize a computer program to search the internet and identify items that match the characters and keywords entered by a user.

The benefits of search engines:

  • Free to anyone with computer access
  • Useful for finding information on groups and organizations
  • Useful for finding personal web pages

What to look out for with search engines:

  • No review standards with regard to content
  • Information not organized
  • Information not stable–locations and content continually change
  • Difficult to narrow down results
  • Difficult to assess legitimacy of information


Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia with entries that can be created, added, and edited by anyone.

The benefits of Wikipedia:

  • Good for gathering background information
  • Helps generate search terms
  • Readers can consult the Wikipedia bibliographies to find potential sources

What to look out for with Wikipedia:

  • Because content is user-created and has no mandatory review process, there is no guarantee information is reliable
  • Authors are not required to provide credentials
  • Pages recently edited or pages on controversial issues can be very biased


Q.2 Discuss various problems faced by Pakistani librarians in regard to library automation in the country.


“A librarian is a person who looks after the storage and retrieval of information. In a workplace, the librarian is usually a professional who is trained and educated to deal with information in a wide variety of formats and settings” (WordiQ, 2010). Librarian helps users to navigate into the voyage of internet and evaluate information efficiently. Librarian offers a helping hand for users to find out the required piece of information and to use it for personal and professional purposes (BLS, 2011). Due to the advent of Internet, World Wide Web and proliferation of online catalogue, the role of librarian has been changed. Now he is more efficient and has new roles as intermediary, facilitator, end-user trainer/educator, web organizer & designer, researcher, interface designer, knowledge manager/professional and sifter of information resources (Rao &Babu, 2001). Librarian should be knowledgeable in a variety of information sources and follow the new trends and advancements in computers, media and publishing (Careeroverview, 2011).

Research Objectives

  1. To review the problems faced by librarians in new digital era.
  2. To identify the major challenges for librarians to work smoothly in cyber environment.
  3. To furnish recommendations to overcome the problems and to tackle the challenges.


The study is based on comprehensive review of related literature & informal semi-structured interviews which were conducted by the second author during some international conferences, with library professionals & scholars from developing countries i.e., Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Malaysia, Nepal, and Pakistan with the purpose to explore their perceptions, opinions and observation regarding the problems & challenges confronted by the librarians due to changing information landscape. Available material on the Internet was also explored.

Studies Conducted to Investigate the Problems/Challenges Confronted by Librarians in Developing Countries in Changing Information Landscape

New tools of information technology have absolutely changed the role & responsibilities of librarians. A number of studies have been conducted to explore the problems faced by librarians. Given section reviews the studies conducted at International level in general and particularly in developing countries to investigate the problems confronted by the librarians.

Ademodi&Adepoju (2009) investigated the computer skill among librarians in academic libraries on Ondo and Ekiti State in Nigeria. It was found the shortage of computers and computer skills among professionals. The study recommended that more attention and funds should be provided for training and procurement of ICT infrastructure in Nigerian University libraries. For computerization purpose, library administration should solicit funds and assistant from foreign agencies and foundations who are interested for the cause.

Adomi&Anie (2006) in their research on computer literacy skills of professionals in Nigerarian University libraries concluded that most of the professionals do not posses high level of computer skill and their use of computer and technology is still maturing. They recommended that library management and leaders should organize and offer in-house computer training programmes for librarians and enough computers should be provided in this regard.

Trushina (2004) discussed the issues related to the internet as well as the correlation of professional codes and their implementation in library practice. He stated that libraries depend on ethical principles more than any other institution because library services are essentially human-oriented. He stressed that librarians must follow the intellectual freedom principle and they have a moral responsibility to the patrons.

Hashim& Mokhtar (n.d) studied the trends and issues in preparing new era librarians and information professionals. They reported that the following trends are essential for new era librarians’ i. e. a vision towards information and knowledge rich society, globalization of information, integrated and widespread ICT applications, growth of electronic/internet resources, role of digital/electronic/virtual library, access role replace custodial role, strategic alliances, partnership and collaborations, librarians need new management knowledge and skills, specialized knowledge & skills in library and information management, trend to develop digital contents to facilitate access. It was concluded that new era librarian will become a guardian of digital information and digital librarians with newly acquired skills can play a meaningful and leading role in the networked information society of the millennium.

Sreenivasulu (2000) studied the role of a digital librarian in the management of digital information systems. He stressed that the multimedia nature of the next generation of digital libraries requires the digital librarians (DL) to be essentially a type of specialist librarian who has to manage and organize the digital library, handle the specialized tasks of massive digitization, storage, access, digital knowledge mining, digital reference services, electronic information services, search co-ordination, and manage the archive and its access. He should be well-versed in markup languages, cataloguing, metadata, multimedia indexing and database technology, user interface design, programming, and Web technology.

Johnson (2007) viewed library and information science education in developing countries. He concluded that LIS programs in developing countries continue to suffer from lack of financial support by governments.

Wallis (2005) found that information literacy is vital skill set for citizens of information societies. They suggested that the librarian must support learning at all levels. They are needed to pass skill set of technological and media literacies to citizens at all levels of society for economic, social and personal empowerment.

Rahman, Khatun& Islam (2008) reviewed the library education in Bangladesh. The study found that majority of institutions in Bangladesh do not have well-equipped computer labs or sufficient numbers of computers for students. A sufficient number of classification and cataloguing tools (DDC, LC, Sears list of subject headings for practical were not present. Many institutions either have no library or inadequate collection of textbooks. Professional’s status was also found very low, low pay scale and limited opportunities for promotion.

In Sri Lanka, Wijayaratne (n.d) probed the challenges encountered by the librarians of developing world in providing library services to support open and distance learning. It was concluded that the attitude of the government towards libraries in Sri Lanka has been changed during the last few years and the government has made several approaches to develop the libraries particularly University libraries. Government also identified the capacity of distance education to accommodate the huge number of A/L completers who cannot gain admission to learn. It was found very important for the OUSL to boost the process of achieving its development goals to upgrade the quality and maintain the standards of distance education in Sri Lanka.

In Nepal, Siwakoti (2008) found that there was no government agency to control, monitor and evaluate the school libraries activities. There was lack of awareness programs, budgetary constraints, inadequate space, inadequate library materials, lack of trained and skilled manpower and lack of appropriate government policy and lack of information literacy.

In Malaysia Lee, Brown, Mekis& Singh (2003) investigated that there was lack of full-time teacher librarians and selected teachers are asked to take charge of the school resource center as one of their administrative duties. There was no uniform current syllabus for the training of teacher librarians. The biggest problem which was found is that in Malaysian teacher librarians are facing professional isolation.

In Iran Gavgani, Shokraneh&Shiramin (2011) concluded that librarians do not have traditional skills and sufficient background knowledge to meet the changing needs of their customers. They need to be empowered by new skills and information before going to empower their patrons. So there must not be a gap between librarian’s professional/technological knowledge and their societies informational need that to be answered by librarians. Need for changing the syllabus of medical library and information science education in Iran was also felt.


Q.3 What is library web portal? How can we evaluate the authenticity of the website?


A web portal is a specially designed website that often serves as the single point of access for information. It can also be considered a library of personalized and categorized content.

A library portal is an interface to access library resources and services through a single access and management point for users: for example, by combining the circulation and catalog functions of an integrated library system (ILS) with additional tools and facilities.

A library portal is defined as “a combination of software components that unify the user experience of discovering and accessing information” in contrast to a “single technology” to provide “services that support discovery, access and effective use of information.

Website authentication is the security process that allows users to verify their identities in order to gain access to their personal accounts on a website.

Website authentication is the security process that allows users to verify their identities in order to gain access to their personal accounts on a website.

This process occurs behind the scenes any time an individual logs into an online account, including social media profiles, eCommerce sites, rewards programs, online banking accounts, and more.

When a user creates a new account on a website, they create a unique ID and key that will be used in the future to verify their identity and allow them back into the account. That ID and key are then stored in a highly secure web server to compare future credentials against.

The idea is that the user is the only one who has access to their ID and key, thus ensuring they’re the only one able to enter the account.

IDs and keys can come in all shapes and sizes, creating login processes that range from “basically open for an attack” to “entirely safe and secure.”

The most common type of website authentication identification, however, is still that of the traditional username and password as the ID and key.

At the same time, traditional username and password schemes have increasingly become vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The good news is there are more modern alternatives that are more secure and provide a better user experience. Sounds like a win-win, right? More on that to come.

2. Why is website authentication important?

Ensuring top-tier authentication practices throughout your website is a huge factor involved in maintaining a highly secure, user-friendly web experience.

If your website authentication process is lacking, you run the risk of unauthorized users gaining access to sensitive user information (this is the trend with traditional username/password authentication strategies). Not only can these data breaches harm individual users when their private information is stolen, but it can also go to destroy your reputation and bottom-line as a business or organization.

For example, imagine an individual is attempting to use your site to purchase household items. The user knows they’ve made an account in the past but is having a difficult time regaining access. Perhaps they’ve forgotten their login credentials and the password reset process is unnecessarily lengthy and overcomplicated. Instead of taking the steps to log in, the user may choose to visit a different retail site, check out a physical store, or forego the product altogether.

That’s an unsatisfied customer and a loss of potential revenue. On the other hand, an optimized authentication system would allow the user to easily verify their identity within seconds⁠— thus removing the barrier and ensuring higher conversion rates.

Streamlined UX and a fast login experience is a major factor in driving acquisition and conversions for eCommerce businesses. However, it’s just as important for any other website with a user login process. We’ve all become accustomed to lightning fast UX and intuitive options, so anything less than that can drive away users or customers.


Q.4 Write notes on the following with examples:

  1. Vendor designed/developed databases
  2. Internal and external storage media
  3. Google and google Scholar
  4. Social media use in libraries


Vendor designed/developed databases

A database, as a collection of information, can be organized so a database management system can access and pull specific information. In 1960, Charles W. Bachman designed the integrated database system, the “first” DBMS. IBM, not wanting to be left out, created a database system of their own, known as IMS.


Computerized database started in the 1960s, when the use of computers became a more cost-effective option for private organizations. There were two popular data models in this decade: a network model called CODASYL and a hierarchical model called IMS. One database system that proved to be a commercial success was the SABRE system that was used by IBM to help American Airlines manage its reservations data.

1970 to 1972

E.F. Codd published an important paper to propose the use of a relational database model, and his ideas changed the way people thought about databases. In his model, the database’s schema, or logical organization, is disconnected from physical information storage, and this became the standard principle for database systems.


Two major relational database system prototypes were created between the years 1974 and 1977, and they were the Ingres, which was developed at UBC, and System R, created at IBM San Jose. Ingres used a query language known as QUEL, and it led to the creation of systems such as Ingres Corp., MS SQL Server, Sybase, Wang’s PACE, and Britton-Lee. On the other hand, System R used the SEQUEL query language, and it contributed to the development of SQL/DS, DB2, Allbase, Oracle, and Non-Stop SQL. It was also in this decade that Relational Database Management System, or RDBMS, became a recognized term.


A new database model called Entity-Relationship, or ER, was proposed by P. Chen this year. This model made it possible for designers to focus on data application, instead of logical table structure.


Structured Query Language, or SQL, became the standard query language.

Relational database systems became a commercial success as the rapid increase in computer sales boosted the database market, and this caused a major decline in the popularity of network and hierarchical database models. DB2 became the flagship database product for IBM, and the introduction of the IBM PC resulted in the establishments of many new database companies and the development of products such as PARADOX, RBASE 5000, RIM, Dbase III and IV, OS/2 Database Manager, and Watcom SQL.

Early 1990s

After a database industry shakeout, most of the surviving companies sold complex database products at high prices. Around this time, new client tools for application development were released, and these included the Oracle Developer, PowerBuilder, VB, and others. A number of tools for personal productivity, such as ODBC and Excel/Access, were also developed. Prototypes for Object Database Management Systems, or ODBMS, were created in the early 1990s.

Mid 1990s

The advent of the Internet led to exponential growth of the database industry. Average desktop users began to use client-server database systems to access computer systems that contained legacy data.

Late 1990s

Increased investment in online businesses resulted in a rise in demand for Internet database connectors, such as Front Page, Active Server Pages, Java Servelets, Dream Weaver, ColdFusion, Enterprise Java Beans, and Oracle Developer 2000. The use of cgi, gcc, MySQL, Apache, and other systems brought open source solution to the Internet. With the increased use of point-of-sale technology, online transaction processing and online analytic processing began to come of age.


Although the Internet industry experienced a decline in the early 2000s, database applications continue to grow. New interactive applications were developed for PDAs, point-of-sale transactions, and consolidation of vendors. Presently, the three leading database companies in the western world are Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle.

. Internal and external storage media

Difference Between Internal Storage And External Storage

There are many users who think that external storage means SD cards and external hard disks. However, it is totally their misconception. Let’s clear that misconception.

When you install an app on your device you will find that it has created a unique private folder. That private folder can be accessed by only that app. The space where these files are stored is called Internal Storage and files stored in this space cannot be accessed by the other apps and users. All the Android system files, OS and app files that users are not allowed to access are stored in the Internal Storage. In order to access these files, you need to download an app that gives you access to these internal files or root your Android device.

On the other hand, all the media files or documents can also be stored on the external storage. The files stored in the external storage can be accessed by the user and other apps easily. For example – the app settings of the music player of your smartphone resides in internal storage, but MP3 files that you download using that app are stored in external storage.

Internal Storage also provides an extra security layer because the files stored in the created directories are not accessible by other apps.

Different Types of External Storages

Basically, there are two types of external storage. One is the popular form of external memory that most smartphone users understand i.e. SD card, also known as memory cards that is the secondary external storage and the other one built-in external storage which is known as primary external storage. A Primary External Storage is one that is accessible by the user but still part of the built-in memory. All your media files, documents, and pictures are stored on this primary storage and this is when you don’t have a physical external storage device such as an SD Card.


  1. Google and google Scholar

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, a search enginecloud computing, software, and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Five companies in the American information technology industry, along with AmazonAppleMeta (Facebook) and Microsoft.[10]

Google was founded on September 4, 1998, by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14% of its publicly-listed shares and control 56% of the stockholder voting power through super-voting stock. The company went public via an initial public offering (IPO) in 2004. In 2015, Google was reorganized as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.. Google is Alphabet’s largest subsidiary and is a holding company for Alphabet’s Internet properties and interests. SundarPichai was appointed CEO of Google on October 24, 2015, replacing Larry Page, who became the CEO of Alphabet. On December 3, 2019, Pichai also became the CEO of Alphabet.

Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertationspreprintsabstractstechnical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents.[1] Google Scholar uses a web crawler, or web robot, to identify files for inclusion in the search results.[2] For content to be indexed in Google Scholar, it must meet certain specified criteria.[3] An earlier statistical estimate published in PLOS One using a Mark and recapture method estimated approximately 80–90% coverage of all articles published in English with an estimate of 100 million.[4] This estimate also determined how many documents were freely available on the internet.

Google Scholar has been criticized for not vetting journals and for including predatory journals in its index.[5]

The University of Michigan Library and other libraries whose collections Google scanned for Google Books and Google Scholar retained copies of the scans and have used them to create the HathiTrust Digital Library.


  1. Social media use in libraries

Social media marketing of libraries is the way of advertising library, its brand product and services via web 2.0 technologies. By using social media libraries can engage with their clienteles and enable them to participate in the production of library products.

The shift of paradigm from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 is offering new challenges for libraries that how to capture the attention of remote users who are engaged in social media activities. Different applications of Web 2.0 in form of social media are being used by millions of people in the world. Social media is an instrument on communication. It is a broad term and covers a large range of web sites which enable people to interact with other visitors. These media are Social news (Dig, Propeller), Social Bookmarking (, Simpy, Blinklist), Social Networking (Facebook, Myspace, LinkedIn), Social Photo and Video Sharing (YouTube, Vimeo, Flickr) and Wikis (Wikipedia, 2011). According to the statistics of July 2011, it has been reported that there are 750 million users of Facebook around the world. Twitter is being used by 250 million users worldwide., 115 million people use LinkedIn, MySpace is being used by 50 million users and the users of Google Plus are 25 million (Googlefan, 2011).

Social media provides more opportunity to reach your community, target specific audiences, and give them a chance to interact with your library. Statistics of Social media usage shows that there are nearly 700 million active Facebook users, over 100 million LinkedIn members, 5 billion+ images on Flickr, 24 million pages on Wikipedia, 300 million Twitter users posting over 7,000 tweets per second, over 2.9 billion hours of YouTube watching per month (Tortorella, 2012). The whole business of libraries is about connecting people with information and this is what social media is really all about. Social media helps in reaching out to our communities and providing them information that they need in a very accessible way. There are number of libraries that used Wikis, Flickr, or Blogs for publishing historical photos and ask people to identify people, places, or events pictured. Different libraries use Wikis for content creation and to create a collaborative relation between library and the community. Hence IM (Instant Messaging), SMS, Twitter and email are being for answering questions (Convertive, 2011).

Social media marketing of libraries is the way of advertising library, its brand product and services via web 2.0 technologies. By using social media libraries can engage with their clienteles and enable them to participate in the production of library products. Social media includes networking web sites like Facebook, MySpace, microblogging web sites like Twitter and other media like blogs, podcasts, photos and videos. By posting library material via social media on library page, it can be used by the variety of locations on the Web (Tuten, 2001).


Q.5 Discuss difference between LIMS and KOHA.


A laboratory information management system (LIMS), sometimes referred to as a laboratory information system (LIS) or laboratory management system (LMS), is a software-based solution with features that support a modern laboratory’s operations. Key features include—but are not limited to—workflow and data tracking support, flexible architecture, and data exchange interfaces, which fully “support its use in regulated environments”. The features and uses of a LIMS have evolved over the years from simple sample tracking to an enterprise resource planning tool that manages multiple aspects of laboratory informatics.

There is no useful definition of the term “LIMS” as it is used to encompass a number of different laboratory informatics components. The spread and depth of these components is highly dependent on the LIMS implementation itself. All LIMSs have a workflow component and some summary data management facilities but beyond that there are significant differences in functionality.

Historically the LIMS, LIS, and process development execution system (PDES) have all performed similar functions. The term “LIMS” has tended to refer to informatics systems targeted for environmental, research, or commercial analysis such as pharmaceutical or petrochemical work. “LIS” has tended to refer to laboratory informatics systems in the forensics and clinical markets, which often required special case management tools. “PDES” has generally applied to a wider scope, including, for example, virtual manufacturing techniques, while not necessarily integrating with laboratory equipment.

In recent times LIMS functionality has spread even further beyond its original purpose of sample management. Assay data management, data mining, data analysis, and electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) integration have been added to many LIMS, enabling the realization of translational medicine completely within a single software solution. Additionally, the distinction between LIMS and LIS has blurred, as many LIMS now also fully support comprehensive case-centric clinical data.


Koha is an open source integrated library system (ILS), used world-wide by publicschool and special libraries. The name comes from a Māori term for a gift or donation.

Koha is a web-based ILS, with a SQL database (MariaDB or MySQL preferred) back end with cataloguing data stored in MARC and accessible via Z39.50 or SRU. The user interface is very configurable and adaptable and has been translated into many languages.[3] Koha has most of the features that would be expected in an ILS, including:

  • Various Web 2.0facilities like tagging, comment, social sharing and RSS feeds
  • Union catalog facility
  • Customizable search
  • Online circulation
  • Bar code printing


Koha was created in 1999 by Katipo Communications for the Horowhenua Library Trust in New Zealand, and the first installation went live in January 2000.[4]

From 2000, companies started providing commercial support for Koha, building to more than 50 today.[5]

In 2001, Paul Poulain (of Marseille, France) began adding many new features to Koha, most significantly support for multiple languages.[6] By 2010, Koha has been translated from its original English into French, Chinese, Arabic and several other languages. Support for the cataloguing and search standards MARC and Z39.50 was added in 2002 and later sponsored by the Athens County Public Libraries.[7] Poulain co-founded BibLibre in 2007.[8]

In 2005, an Ohio-based company, Metavore, Inc., trading as LibLime, was established to support Koha and added many new features, including support for Zebra sponsored by the Crawford County Federated Library System. Zebra support increased the speed of searches as well as improving scalability to support tens of millions of bibliographic records.

In 2007 a group of libraries in Vermont began testing the use of Koha for Vermont libraries. At first a separate implementation was created for each library. Then the Vermont Organization of Koha Automated Libraries (VOKAL) was organized to create one database to be used by libraries. This database was rolled out in 2011. Fifty-seven libraries have chosen to adopt Koha and moved to the shared production environment hosted and supported by ByWater Solutions.[9] Another consortium of libraries in Vermont, the Catamount Library Network has also adopted Koha (also hosted by ByWater Solutions). Previously automated Vermont libraries used software from Follett, or other commercial software vendors.[10]

In 2010 the King’s Fund, supported by PTFS Europe, completed their migration to Koha after an extensive feasibility study.[11]

In 2011 the Spanish Ministry of Culture maintains KOBLI, a tailored version of Koha[12] based on an earlier report.[13][14]

In 2014 the Ministry of Culture (Turkey) started to use Koha–Devinim in 1,136 public libraries with more than 17 million items and around 2 million active users.[15] Specialized libraries such as music libraries have adopted Koha because its open-source nature offers easier customization for their particular use cases.[16]

A 2017 Library Technology Reports article claimed that Koha “holds the position as the most widely implemented open source integrated library system (ILS) in the world”.[17] According to ohloh (now OpenHub), in 2019 Koha had a “[v]ery large, active development team” and a “[m]ature, well-established codebase”, with hundreds of contributors and over 20 monthly contributors each month from 2011 to 2019.



I started this website to help the students, You can find the latest scholarships on, a website that guides you according to your field of study. I will provide the information that students will need to apply for international scholarships in the US, UK, Canada, Australia, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Leave a Comment