Semester: Autumn, 2021
Q.1 How Socio-economic development of a country depends upon higher education? Is higher education in Pakistan playing its role effectively? How or why not?
The twentieth century witnessed a major growth in the provision of educational opportunity across the globe, which is a good thing. Landmark multinational agreements such as the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights and the more recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) put forward a right for all children to be educated
There are many reasons to believe that increased educational opportunity and achievement lead to social progress. The aim of this chapter is to examine how can educatıon promote social progress.
Answering this question is not straightforward. Education has multiple aims, and the way in which education is provided – educational governance, educational institutions and educators, curriculum, and pedagogy – all matter a great deal. We will cover each of these topics in this chapter, looking at trends across the globe and seeking ascertain what scholars know about better and worse forms of educational provision.
To understand the connection between education and social progress, we must first distinguish among four distinct aims of education: economic, civic, humanistic, and equity promotion
Current conditions and challenge
In this section, we present a broad view of education in the world today, showing how formal education has expanded in the last decades, and emphasizing how it relates to citizenship, growing opportunities for social mobility, economic development and equity. We take stock of what has been achieved and is still to be done to improve access to quality education in the poorer parts of the word, through the Sustainable Developed Goals fostered by global community, which is mostly concerned with initial and mandatory education; and take a closer look at the special roles played by vocational and tertiary education. Each of these dimensions are subject to controversies, which we try to take into account, while emphasis the overall positive effects of education for social progress.
Education and social progress
Culture, “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits” (Tylor 1870) is the most distinctive element of human societies, and in its broadest sense education is the process of facilitating learning or the acquisition of culture. Education takes place informally, starting with the interaction of children with their parents and relatives, but becomes to a large extent formal in complex societies, as it is codified (in primers, manuals, catechisms, handbooks) and provided by specialized institutions (churches, schools, universities, professional guilds, academies) according to specific methods (lecturing, memorization, demonstration, interpretation, collaboration, practice, experimentation).
Expansion and increased access
In the last century, and especially after World War II, access to formal education expanded dramatically. In the same period, governments shifted their priorities from education for citizenship to education for productivity, with great consequence.
National examples, there is the interesting and promising Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning Project, a field experiment conducted between 1994 and 2003 in the isolated and impoverished northern region of Ghana. As the Matlab experiment in Bangladesh showed a decade earlier, the Navrongo study showed that even under conditions of extreme poverty and depressed living standards, a demand for fertility limitation could be identified and satisfied by appropriately designed services (Phillips et al. 2006). Fertility was reduced by 15 per cent in the programme areas, whereas it remained essentially unchanged in the control areas.
Kenya, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Rwanda, and the Navrongo project, have all demonstrated that population policies and reproductive health programmes can work in Africa. What is needed now is for African leaders to understand this and also to believe that effective fertility control programmes need to become essential elements of the economic development strategies they design and implement in their countries. Effective family planning is as essential to the future success of Ghana, Cote D’Ivoire and Mozambique as it was for Korea, Thailand and Indonesia.
In June 2007, when Gordon Brown succeeded Tony Blair as Prime Minister, he immediately quoted his school motto (“I will do my utmost”), thereby showing his commitment to education. This was one of the key policies of New Labour governments and can be more systematically analysed as the Brown years are now over. We will thus explore education policies in England from 1997 to 2010, laying the emphasis on Gordon Brown’s role in his successive positions. His commitment to education was apparent in setting funding levels as Chancellor of the Exchequer, but also in March 2007, when he announced the school leaving age would be raised, and as Prime Minister, with the decision to split the Department for Education and Skills in June 2007. We will first focus on New Labour’s education policy from 1997 to 2010, particularly on the continuity in its tenets and on government funding. We will then analyse specific elements such as standards, the intervention of the private sector, social mobility and efforts to improve the employability of English youths.
Everyone will remember the famous New Labour slogan “Education, education, education.” When he became Prime Minister, Gordon Brown carried this commitment further, by splitting the education department. The remit of the Department for Children, Schools and Families was broadened beyond its traditional role but such institutional reform attained its limits in June 2009, when the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills was merged into a bigger department under Lord Mandelson who became Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills.
From 2007 on, education policies were characterised by continuity with New Labour tenets, particularly on issues like parental choice in an education market. This also implied diversification in education providers with the creation of new schools (e.g. specialist schools, Academies) and the growing intervention of the private sector. Also central in Labour education policies, from 1997 to 2010, were interventionism in the name of excellence and focusing on the rights and responsibilities of education protagonists such as teachers, parents and graduates. Testing was one of the cornerstones of reforms implemented since the 1980s but one significant change occurred in 2008. After Educational Testing Service Europe in charge of test marking caused a “fiasco”, Children’s Secretary Ed Balls announced the end of testing at 14. The Guardian described such a decision as “historic”1,but its impact must not be overstated as the government rejected calls for a global assessment of testing in education and the very idea of dropping tests altogether.
Before dealing with some New Labour policies in greater detail, we wish to turn to their sinews, that is funding. Although the 1997 manifesto promised to “increase the share of national income spent on education,” prudence was rather the norm in the early years as spending remained within the limits set by the Conservatives in the last years before 19972. From 2001 on however, education budgets rose markedly with their proportion of GDP going from 4.9% in 1997/98 to 5.5% in 2003/043 and 5.9% in 2006, slightly below the OECD average4.
Because of the current recession, such a trend could not go on unchecked. In September 2009, Gordon Brown pledged education spending would not be cut until 2011, but Children’s Secretary Ed Balls announced that efficiency savings worth £2 billion should be defined by then5.
One of the key policies was the constant focus on standards with test and exam results as expressed in league tables. Ofsted is also part and parcel of such a policy with its assessment of teaching standards. The Standards Task Force and Standards and Effectiveness Unit were set up in 1997 and a website wholly dedicated to standards shows how central this issue has remained6. This has meant an avalanche of targets and some more were in fact added to the Public Service Agreements (PSAs) released in October 2007, for example “narrow[ing] the gap in educational achievement between children from disadvantaged backgrounds and their peers” by 20117.
At first, New Labour was rhetorically cautious regarding the intervention of the private sector in education, but in June 2001 Education Secretary Estelle Morris asserted there were “‘no ideological bars’ to any solutions that could help schools.” Such a stance was reiterated by Gordon Brown in December 2007: “The role of the private sector in this area is expanding and […] will be a lot bigger in the next few years than it is now. In September 2008, Children’s Secretary Ed Balls urged community groups to create co-operative schools. We will however deal only with private companies in education as the voluntary sector is not yet a key player in this field. Private firms manage Local Authorities and schools which were considered to be failing. Their investment into schools created under New Labour governments has also given them some say in managing academies, specialist and trust schools, as they are free from Local Authority control. Special offers were advertised to attract private sponsors, like in September 2009, when it was decided they would no longer have to pay £2 million in advance, but rather establish their will and capacity to manage an Academy. Private companies have also been in charge of educational services like marking Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) and exams. Some have been given the right to award higher education degrees like BPP College in September 2007, or to offer work experience which could be part of A-levels or vocational diplomas12. Private firms have also been active in the development of vocational diplomas. Finally, the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) which was inaugurated in the early 1990s experienced dramatic growth with New Labour which based its school-building programme (Building Schools for the Future) largely on PFI.
Q.2 Compare different modes applicable to the universities. Which mode do you think is most appropriate for Pakistan and why?
Education is the soul of an individual and a nation; it is the beacon which allows the nations to find the way to the future. Philosophy of education deals with the problems of our education system through a multi disciplinary approach concerned with its concepts, aims, methods and results.
Our Education System is a legacy of our colonial masters. We have failed to update it with respect to the changing times. What education we are giving to our own children today, is an antithesis of the Plato’s Education Philosophy of Idealism described in his vision of an ideal Republic; which advocates about an individual who is subservient to a just society. Should the child be raised by the state as advocated by Plato(away from parents)? This question has been answered differently by Utopian scholars, ideologies and civilizations. Irrespective of the way the child is brought up in various civilizations, the aim of education is to create the social change; produce citizens for the civil society and provide opportunity to all social classes for the growth of individuals and communities. Pakistan is a Republic but the aim of education is not clear. Ironically, developing a national aim of education is not the agenda of our law makers; not even the reform oriented political parties have declared any concrete policy on education. The surveys of schools conducted in rural Sind and Punjab in 1990s revealed that 60 percent of our schools in our rural areas are not functioning. The people who can write their names are only 52 percent in Pakistan, the unofficial literacy level is much lower. If we have a national debate on the question does nature or nurture is responsible for our underdevelopment? the majority will favor the concept of Fatalism(a philosophical doctrine emphasizing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate). Under these circumstances we cannot discuss the Philosophy of Kant or Hegel in Pakistan. It is no surprise that Pakistan became the breeding ground of fanatic religious ideologies supported by brotherly countries since 1979.
Islam is one of the majestic religions of the world which emphasized on her followers to get educated; Islam declared knowledge as light and its absence as darkness. The Holy Book Al-Quran is a living miracle of our beloved Prophet Rehmat-ul-Alameen Muhammad(Peace be Upon him). Quran is a treasure of knowledge and guidance for the people till the day of judgment. It completed the religion of Allah initially delivered piecemeal by the Prophets in different times and places. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) created a welfare state/civil society in Madina for 12 years. Sociologists believe that women’s rights are the key to the civilization of change and progress. He(PBUH) gave the rights of emancipation (the right to marry, get education, adopt a career, get inheritance and choose divorce at will) to women in the 7th century, which were given to European women after 1850s. The international scholars acclaim him as the greatest leader of mankind who brought an unimaginable social change in the world’s most uneducated and uncivilized society of the world-Arabia in the 7th century. The Muslims emerged as a world power from the 7th to the 17th Century A.D. However, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is ranked just above the Least Developed Countries(LDCs) in the Human Development Index of the world. It is ironic that Islam provided all the recipes of national development, nevertheless we are moving on the way of darkness; we are infected with all the social evils for which different communities were punished by Allah for disobedience as narrated the Quran. I have yet to see any demonstration by religious parties in Pakistan on our illiteracy or lack of intellectualism. Our Holy Prophet(PBUH), his Ahl-e-Bait and his sincere companions gave us the gift of knowledge to change, why are we following the path of darkness? If utilitarianism can be achieved by other civilizations of the world, than why not the people of Pakistan get a scholastic solution to their problems.
I listened to different TV anchors who in their talk-shows emphasize the formation of National Policies on Economics, Defense, Foreign Policy etc. No doubt they are important but education is the key for development. According to UNDP, investment on education provides a long term profit @16 per cent. Low literacy rates are one of the reasons of poor economic growth in India despite having democracy for 65 years. Contrary, huge investment on human development and technical education by autocratic China produced one of the strongest sustainable growth in human history. The economic growth of brother Islamic Republics/countries of Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Malaysia and Indonesia is correlated with their accomplishments in education. Why are we afraid of knowledge and development of our people? Literate and educated Pakistan has a higher probability to defeat the non democratic forces than the existing web of poverty, deprivation and darkness. John Dewey(1859-1952) believed in the strong relationship of education with democracy. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of Pragmatism(philosophical tradition centered on the linking of practice and theory) and one of the founders of Functional Psychology(general psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behavior in terms of active adaptation to the person’s environment). He was a major representative of progressive education and liberalism.
From the perceptive of parents, education should augment their family income and social standing in the society. The structure of our education provides 14 years of education to a child with no guarantee of employment. As Pakistan is passing through its worst economic growth under a democratic government, our education should focus on technical education and entrepreneurship trainings to our students. The lack of economic independence of our male graduates reduces matrimony, sustainable marriages and other social evils in our society. Informal education with NGO’s support is possible.
Weak relationship of Primary/Secondary education with the Higher education reduces its linkage with national economic growth as experienced in Sri Lanka. Higher education got a fillip in Pakistan from 2000 to 2007, under a military rule. Higher Education Commission created by Mr Atta-ur-Rehamn and his team gave us hope that Pakistan has a futuristic vision; the weaknesses in the national economic and human development had a ray of hope that the young generation is moving in the right direction. The students were selected on merit for foreign scholarships in the technologies of future. The local universities were expanding and improving to accommodate the young scholars returning back from their studies. But the discontinuation of these great initiatives by the People’s Government in the last 5 years has increased the fears of failures of state. It has amplified despair in the society.
Q.3 critically examine the role of Higher Education Commission in the development and growth of higher education in Pakistan.
To answer these questions we should now discuss the principles of curriculum development.
(a) Suitability to the age and mental level of the children
- What is to be given to the children in the form of learning experiences at a particular age and grade level should suit their age and mental development
- The capacity for understanding, how children grow with age. The content of the study in any subject should be formed to suit their mental ability.
(b) According to the specific interests of students
- Children will be able to learn better in fields where they have special tastes and inclination of the mind.
- It is also found that at different stages of age groups, children have different interest patterns.
- Interests of children also change according to circumstances and situations.
- Therefore learning experiences should be designed to suit the interests and tastes of the age group of students.
(c) The curriculum should be environmentally centered
- The content of the learning experiences for children should be linked with the needs of the environment in which they live.
- For example, children from rural areas can understand and grasp easily the information which is directly concerned with their experiences in their own rural environment.
- The same thing applies to children in the various environment like urban areas, hilly areas etc.
(d) The principle of the comprehensive curriculum
- The curriculum must have necessary details. List of topics to be covered does not solve the purpose.
- Both teachers and students should know clearly what is expected of them, what is the beginning and what is the end of the topic for the particular class.
- Material, aids, activities, life situations etc. should be listed in the curriculum.
(e) Principle of co-relation
- The curriculum should be such that all the subjects are correlated with each other.
- While designing the curriculum, it must be kept in mind that the subject matter of various subjects has some relation to each other so that they help the child eventually.
(f) The principle of practical work
- Children are very active by nature.
- They like new things and can learn more by doing or by activity method.
- Therefore curriculum should be designed in such a way that it provides maximum opportunity to the child for practical work with the help of concrete things.
(g) Principle of flexibility
- Instead of being rigid curriculum should show the sign of flexibility.
- The organization of the curriculum should be on the basis of individual differences as every child is different from the other.
- Apart from this conditions of society go on changing, therefore, the curriculum must be flexible enough to address the needs as aspirations of the society.
(h) Principle of forward-looking
- This principle asks for the inclusion of those topics, content and learning experiences that may prove helpful to the students in leading their future life in a proper way.
(i) The principle of consultation with teachers
- Teachers play a key role in the implementation of the school curriculum of any grade or stage.
- It is therefore quite essential to seek the proper involvement of the teachers in the construction and development of school curriculum.
(j) The principle of joint venture
- It is necessarily a joint venture where various experts are involved like educational psychologists, educational technologists, curriculum specialists, evaluation specialists, teachers, subject matter experts etc.
(k) The principle of availability of time and other resources
Curriculum is the means to realize the outcomes of the educational objectives of the school. Implementation of curriculum is equally important as curriculum construction. While developing curriculum experts should also keep its implementation in mind. They should be aware of the conditions of the schools and possible availability of time and resources available.
Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education
Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be offered.
Literacy and Non-Formal Education
Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.
About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and Examination system. Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education.
One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.
To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created.
Technical and Vocational Education
To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.
Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. And Ph.D programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split PhD programs shall be launched in collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.
Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc
Library and Documentation Services
School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.
Private Sector in Education
Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.
The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.
Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation
A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for collecting data from all over the country. The total expenditure of the government on education will be raised from its present level of 2.2% to 4% of GNP by the year 2002-03 (p.132).
If you will go through the Education policy of Pakistan from 1998 to 2010 you would have to know that the policy is just consist on 15 points. And whole theme of policy move around these 15 points. So in the very first Aim and objective point we may find there that “Education and Training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teaching of Islam as laid down in the quran and sunnah and to Educate, to train them as a true plasticizing Muslims .These lines are not a new lines lined by the policy makers, we continuously keep on reading all these stuff for previous 60 years from the Mouth of government and policy makers. And again the policy proved that it has been unsuccessful what are the reasons? And what is the logic behind it? We don’t have an enough time and space to discuss here the answer may be asked to educators.
As clearly the clash between the deeni madersah students and modern school and institutions students is going on and fight is being on in fata, and tribal Agencies, and again the battle among the Mr. and Mullah is being fought due to un-unified, non-logic, non centralized policy. gap and gulf between these both educational systems is clear to every body.
Now we turn our selves to the 2nd point where our policy makers shown there dream to achieve the 70% literacy rate from 39% till 70%.and it clearly seems us impossible ,even though the project such as in province Punjab like “parha likha” Punjab didn’t reach to the zenith .Basically they need sincerity,professionalism,and hard working .in the statement of policy makers where they displayed their concern over education through the policy that till 2010 disparities in basic education that will be reduce to half by year 2010.
Policy makers in their 3rd stage relate it to the elementary education, and here they explained that they till the 2002-3. 90% of the age of 5-9 will be enrolled in elementary education .they will also revise the curriculum and stress will be given to teachers training, and improvement in the management and supervision system will be made, and same formula will be apply to the existing examination and Examination system.
After the elementary stage we have now the secondary education, the unique stuff in the secondary stage is that, it insisted that there shall be one model school that will be setup in the district level and the participation level rate will be increased from 31 % to 48% by 2002-03.one sharp feature of this stage is about the Technical Education that will will be made to the part of secondary education and curricula will be updated for particular task. Multiple text books will be introduced at secondary school level. One of the novel things in the policy is about training of secondary teachers through workshops and refreshment cources.Both the formal and non means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers. The commission also gave importance to the technical and vocational education in country for producing trained manpower. But we see that the Government has been unsuccessful while chasing target. Reasons are several and they cant be throughly explained. Basic the commission failed to recognized that where world is going on? and on what lines the Asian tigers working? ,as usual ,few discipline in science and technologies were given importance. Telecommunication progress mean the advancement in service sector of telecom . No technology related to matter has been transferred to Pakistan and no assistance to universities provided as compare to china, India and Malaysia ,where not only micro processors and hardwares are being assembled but also technologies has been also provided to these particular countries. Even though the most progressive technical industry of Pakistan that is Automobiles have not been provided fully assistance and technology to local market. The main CEO is pertaining to manufacturing country. No collaboration to any technical and engineering university has been made. Increasing fuel prices and high rise car price stresses the manufacture to manufacture the nano car for common man as have been done in India by Tata group. Where local universities and foreign collaboration made it happen. I think our policy makers are not technical they just makes policy for groups and classes and for their own sake.
Q.4 critically discuss different functions of universities. Elaborate the nature and need of every function with the help of examples from Pakistan context.
In my career as an educator, social scientist and university president, I have worked primarily as an organizational designer and architect. And in doing so, I have been fortunate to have the opportunity to study how universities and other organizations are structured, how decisions related to their design can shape their visions and accomplishments, and how organizations can work together as partners to achieve more than they could alone. It is my belief that, as the pace and complexity of our global society increases exponentially, there is an urgent need to realign the design and infrastructure of education with the needs of the people our educational systems are intended to serve. While universities have long been vital and powerful drivers of global innovation and economic development, they must now be willing to break free from outmoded paradigms if they hope to continue achieving meaningful progress.
With this motivation in mind, Arizona State University (ASU) has spent more than a decade evolving a new model for 21st century higher education. Known as the New American University, it is dedicated to the simultaneous achievement of excellence and access, an endeavor long thought impossible by academic leaders. Based upon that design and my experience over the past eleven years, I offer the following observations and examples as a means of facilitating discussion about the role of universities in our global development community as well as the imperative to foster innovation in all of our global institutions:
- Universities are unique kinds of global institutions. Universities are institutions intended to be durable and enduring. When wisely designed, governed and financed, they are unique entities in our American democracy and in our global society. Universities are neutral conveners, assemblers of talent, and unmatched idea factories where the passion, creativity, and idealism of great minds,young and old alike, can be applied to problem-solving and advancing our societal and economic well-being.
- Universities must adapt and innovate. Contemporary universities have a responsibility to transcend traditional disciplinary limitations in pursuit of intellectual fusion, and develop a culture of academic enterprise and knowledge entrepreneurship. They must also be prepared to begin delivering higher education at scale– in a manner that bestows status upon universities based upon the outcomes they achieveand their breadth of impact rather than the exclusivity and quality of their incoming freshman class.
- Universities must embrace their cultural, socioeconomic and physical setting. It is imperative that universities be socially embedded, thereby fostering development through direct engagement. Universities must work creatively and be willing to take risks to become even greater forces of societal transformation.
- Universities must focus on the individual. Universities need to foster student success by becoming student-centric – rather than faculty-centric. Successful universities will be those capable of being nimble, anticipatory, imaginative and reactive. They must provide unique environments that prepare students to be “master thinkers”able to grasp a wide array of skills and comprise the most adaptable workforce the world has ever known.
- Universities must become effective partners for global development. Only through the proliferation of networks between like-minded alliances can transformation occur at the scale that is immediately needed in order to advance our present global knowledge economy. Our communities must open their eyes to this imminent future and transform their thinking to see universities, not as self-indulgent “people factories,” but as valuable idea generators with vast influence and the potential to manifest technologies and conceptsthat can change lives the world over. Change is not easy. Modification and growth in large, complex institutions that are part of an increasingly global system of commerce, trade and interchange can be particularly challenging. But innovation and adaptation are needed now more than ever before in our international higher education infrastructure and in our global development institutions. We must work together to build what we need, not simply replicate what has existed before, and I welcome your ideasand feedback on the role of universities in advancing global development.
Q.5 Explain the higher education system in Japan. Compare it with higher education system of Malaysia.
Like other developed countries, the basic requirement to be eligible to enter higher education in Japan is 12 years of education. Students from countries that do not yet have a 12-year education system can attend one of the accredited languages schools which offer pre-college courses. Broadly speaking, there are three types of higher education institutions in Japan.
- Senmon-gakko (specialist schools)
- Short-term universities
Senmon-gakko are specialist schools that offer 2-year courses. The courses are typically vocational (hairdressing, fashion, caring, etc.); although there are schools that offer more generalist courses such as “business”. Senmon-gakko are much easier to enter than universities, and many accept students on the basis of submission materials alone (no interviews or entrance examinations). Some are also willing to consider students who have no graduated from high-school and so would not be eligible to enter universities, which are far more strict when it comes to entry requirements. There are over 3,000 schools in Japan (around 350 in Tokyo) and over 90% of these are private institutions.
Tuition fees vary depending on course, but they the cheapest of all the higher education options in Japan at around ¥3 million ($28,430) on average. This is largely because they are 2-year courses versus 4-years for university, but also the nature of the courses and the lack of facilities that you might find in the larger campuses of universities helps keep costs down.
Short-term universities are similar to specialist schools (2-year courses) but less vocationally focused (like universities, students will be required to study other subjects outside of their chosen one). There are around 400 short-term universities in Japan and in terms of cost they are slightly more expensive (around 20%) than senmon-gakko.
Most students entering higher education will opt to go to university. As you might expect, for entry to the major corporations and international companies a degree from a respected institution is a must. There are around 800 universities in Japan, and they can be further broken down into three types:
National universities as their name suggests—are supported by the state and ultimately paid for by the tax payer. They tend to be bigger institutions with a large budget. There are around 90 national universities in Japan—the University of Tokyo and the University of Kyoto being the two most famous. Being state-funded they are the cheapest in terms of tuition fees which total approximately ¥5 million ($47,384) over the course of the 4 year study period.
Public universities are run by the prefecture in which the university resides and funded by taxes from the citizens in that prefecture (in Japan taxes are paid to cities and governments like council tax in the U.K. or state tax in the U.S.). They tend to be smaller institutions compared to national universities, but the key difference is that students who live in that prefecture pay less school fees than those that don’t. There are about 100 public universities in Japan. Tuition fees levels are similar to national universities.
Private universities do not receive state funding and are therefore more expensive than both national universities and public universities. They tend to have better facilities and each have their unique characteristics. There are around 600 private universities in Japan and they account for over 75% of student numbers. Keio University, Waseda University, and Sophia University are three of the most famous. Private universities are the most expensive of the three costing on average ¥7 million ($66,337) for humanities and ¥8 million ($75,814) for science courses..
There is a need for implementation of national education policy and vision 2030 education goals. An analysis of education policy suggests that at the policy level there are several admirable ideas, but practically there are some shortcomings also.
It may not be possible for the government at the moment to implement uniform education system in the country, but a uniform curriculum can be introduced in educational institutes of the country. This will provide equal opportunity to the students of rural areas to compete with students of urban areas in the job market.
Since majority of Pakistani population resides in rural areas and the access to education is a major problem for them, it seems feasible that a balanced approach for formal and informal education be adopted. Government as well as non-government sector should work together to promote education in rural areas.
The government should take measures to get school buildings vacated which are occupied by feudal lords of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab. Efforts should be made to ensure that proper education is provided in those schools.
The federal government is paying attention to the vocational and technical training, but it is important to make the already existing vocational and technical training centres more efficient so that skilled youth could be produced.
Since education is a provincial subject, the provincial education secretariats need to be strengthened. Special policy planning units should be established in provinces’ education departments for implementation of educational policies and formulation of new policies whenever needed. The provincial education departments need to work out financial resources required for realising the compliance of Article 25-A.
Federal Government should play a supportive role vis-à-vis the provinces for the early compliance of the constitutional obligation laid down in Article 25-A. Special grants can be provided to the provinces where the literacy rate is low.
Pakistan is not the only country which is facing challenges regarding promotion of literacy and meeting EFA and MDGs commitments. Education remains a subject which is paid least attention in the whole South Asian region. UNDP report 2014 suggests that there has been an improvement in other elements of human development such as life expectancy, per capita income and human development index value (in past 3 years); but there has been no progress in the number of schooling years. The expected average for years of schooling in 2010 was 10.6 years but the actual average of schooling remained 4.7 for all South Asian countries. In the year 2013 the expected average of number of years increased to 11.2 but the actual average of years of schooling of South Asian countries remained 4.7. Regional cooperation mechanism can also be developed to promote literacy in South Asian region. Sharing success stories, making country-specific modifications and their implementation can generate positive results.