AIOU Course Code 3614-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

Assignment No.2

Q.1      Classify the personal, social environmental and economic factors that affect the participation of people with disabilities in physical exercise and sports.

Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) was first started in 1970s with the aim of providing low tech rehabilitation services for People with Disability (PWDs) in low income countries and then in 1980s, it started focusing on people and community development. In 1989, World Health Organization (WHO) published the manual training in the community for the people with disabilities with the aim of providing guidance and support for CBR programmes and stakeholders. CBR was defined in 2004 by the International Labor Organization (ILO), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and WHO as a strategy within general community development for the rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities, poverty reduction and social inclusion of all people with disabilities. CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of people with disabilities themselves, their families, organizations and communities, and the relevant governmental and non-governmental health, education, vocational, social and other services.” The guideline helps CBR stakeholders around the world to conduct the CBR programmes, create common understanding and approach for CBR all around the world. The guideline is highly influenced by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD) and its optional protocol. The main target audience of the guideline is CBR managers. The guideline can also be used by other CBR personnel, community development workers, disabled people’s organizations and self help groups, government officials, various non-governmental and not-for-profit organizations and can also be used for research and academic purpose. The objectives of the guideline are:

  • To provide guidance on developing and strengthening the CBR programmes according to the CBR joint position paper and the CRPD.
  • To promote CBR as a strategy for community-based inclusive development to assist in the mainstreaming of disability in development initiatives, and in particular, to reduce poverty.
  • To support stakeholders to meet the basic needs and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities and their families by facilitating access to the health, education, livelihood and social sectors.
  • To encourage stakeholders to facilitate the empowerment of PWDs and their families by promoting their inclusion and participation in development and decision-making processes.

The following table shows the components of the CBR matrix along with its elements.

Health Education livelihood Social Empowerment
Promotion Early childhood Skills development Personal assistance Advocacy and communication
Prevention Primary Self-employment Relationships, marriage and family Community mobilization
Medical care Secondary and higher Wage employment Culture and arts Political participation
Rehabilitation Non formal Financial services Recreation, leisure and sports Self-help groups
Assistive devices lifelong learning Social protection Justice Disabled people’s organization

The principles of CBR are based on the principles of CRPD. The principles are:

  • Respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one’s own choices, and independence of persons
  • Non-discrimination
  • Full and effective participation and inclusion in society
  • Respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human diversity and humanity
  • Equality of opportunity
  • Accessibility
  • Equality between men and women
  • Respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities and respect for the right of children with disabilities to preserve their identities.
CBR projects CBR programmes
·         Small in scale

·         Focused on achieving very specific outcome in one component of the CBR matrix

·         Short term with set start-point and end point.

·         If the government support is limited, it can be started by local community groups and nongovernmental organizations.

·         large in scale

·         More complex than projects

·         Usually long term with no set completion dates

·         The successful project may be expanded to the program level


Q.2      What is counseling? Define the role of counselor during search for placement and adjustment of a job.

Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Employee Selection is the process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization. Without qualified employees, an organization is in a poorer position to succeed. Selection is much more than just choosing the best available person. Selecting the appropriate set of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs)—which come packaged in a human being—is an attempt to get a “fit” between what the applicant can and wants to do, and what the organization needs. The task is made more difficult because it is not always possible to tell exactly what the applicant really can and wants to do. Fit between the applicant and the organization affects both the employer’s willingness to make a job offer and an applicant’s willingness to accept a job. Fitting a person to the right job is called placement.Good selection and placement decisions are an important part of successful HR management. Some would argue that these decisions are the most important part. Productivity improvement for an employer may come from changes in incentive pay plans, improved training, or better job design; but unless the employer has the necessary people with the appropriate KSAs in place, those changes may not have much impact. The very best training will not enable someone with little aptitude for a certain job to do that job well and enjoy it.

The purpose of selection process is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job in an organisation best, to find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet this goal, the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age, qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates. The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it is directly affects the amount and quality of employee’s work and overall performance and productivity of the organization. Any mismatch in this regard can cost an organisation a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms of training and operating costs. In course of time, the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even circulate ‘hot news’ and juicy bits of negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the company in the long run. Effective election, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the ‘fit’ between people the job.

The HR Employment Manager directs the organization’s recruitment, screening, interviewing, selection, and placement activities. They manage employment functions and staff members. In addition, they extend job offers and establish starting salaries, arrange advertising or employment agency services, and produce affirmative action or college recruiting programs.

Most hiring managers believe passionate employees are high achievers. Assessing a potential candidate’s passion is more of an art than a science. Some feel those that pursue a job opening with vigor are passionate. Some think speed-talkers or speed-thinkers are passionate. Others gauge passion by looking at high school or college activities such as sports, band, and debate team participation.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. The Myers-Briggs personality assessment has been identifying introverts, extroverts and other personality types since 1943. Based on the theories of psychologist Carl Jung, the Myers-Briggs questionnaire has been gauging personalities through attitude, style and cultural changes occurring during the past 60 years. Many consider it an essential tool for hiring and career development. The indicator is frequently used in the areas of pedagogy, career counseling, team building, group dynamics, professional development, marketing, family business, leadership training, executive coaching, life coaching, personal development, marriage counseling, and workers’ compensation claims.

Employee selection process at few companies

Siemens India: It uses extensive psychometric instruments to evaluate short-listed candidates. The company uses occupational personality questionnaire to understand the candidate’s personal attributes and occupational testing to measure competencies.

LG Electronics India: LG Electronics uses 3 psychometric tests to measure a person’s ability as a team player, to check personality types and to find a person’s responsiveness and assertiveness.

Arthur Anderson: while evaluating candidates, the company conducts critical behaviour interviewing which evaluates the suitability of the candidate for the position, largely based on his past experience and credentials

Pepsi Co India: The Company uses India as a global recruitment resource. To select professionals for global careers with it, the company uses a competency- based interviewing technique that looks at the candidate’s abilities in terms of strategizing, lateral thinking, problem solving, managing the environment. This apart, Pepsi insists that to succeed in a global posting, these individuals possess strong functional knowledge and come from a cosmopolitan background.

Q.3      Analyse the role of schools and communities in promoting positive transitions. Propose strategies that facilitate effective transitions.

Government of Pakistan has enacted a law in order to provide for employment, rehabilitation and welfare of disabled persons in the country. The “Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance” was enacted in 1981 as a presidential ordinance. This law was promulgated during the “International Year for Disabled Persons” in 1981 to provide support to the disabled persons in finding employment in government as well as commercial and industrial establishments. After devolution of the subject of labour in 2011, the provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have adopted the 1981 Ordinance. Sindh has enacted its own law, i.e., The Sindh Differently Able Persons (employment, rehabilitation and welfare) Act, 2014.

Government of Pakistan has also ratified ‘ILO Convention on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons’. Similarly in the last year, it has also ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

According to World Bank and WHO estimates, at least 10% of country’s total population is disabled/persons with disabilities (PWDs). Of these 18 million PWDs, over 5 million live in the Urban areas while the other 13 million reside in rural areas. It is however interesting to note that only 136,928 PWDs have been registered with National Database & Registration Authority (NADRA) and issued national identity cards.

The “Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance 1981 (DPO-1981)” is applicable to any establishment, whether government, industrial or commercial, in which the number of employees at any time during the year are at least one hundred (or to simplify it; which employs at least 100 workers for the whole year). The table below provides further details of organizations, which are considered as establishments, hence following under the purview of DPO-1981.

Government Establishments Commercial Establishments Industrial Establishments
Federal/provincial government managed organizations Advertising/commission/forwarding Agency, clerical department of a factory, joint stock company, Factory
Autonomous/semi-autonomous bodies insurance company, banking company, bank, broker office, stock exchange, Railways
University, college, professional school Club, hotel, restaurant, Establishment of a contractor
Cinema, theater, Establishment in connection with construction industry
Other organizations as declared and notified by the government

In accordance with the law, a disabled person is the one ” who on account of injury, disease or congenital deformity, is handicapped for undertaking any gainful or professional employment in order to earn his livelihood, and it includes a person who is

  • Deaf
  • Blind
  • Physically handicapped or
  • Mentally retarded

In the context of employment, a more clear definition of disability is provided in the ILO Convention, ratified by Pakistan in 1994. To this convention, disabled person means “an individual whose prospects of securing; retaining and advancing in suitable employment are substantially reduced as a result of a duly recognized physical or mental impairment”.

According to Section 10 of the above Ordinance, one percent quota was reserved for disabled persons (special persons) in all public and private sector establishments. This quota was later enhanced to 2% in 1998 through an administrative order, issued by Establishment Division. This is however not a statutory amendment. The employers provide the information as to whether an establishment is employing required 2% disabled persons, to the Provincial Departments through Annual Manpower Survey forms. The law actually does not place limit on the number of disabled persons in an establishment rather it provides that at least two percent of employees should be Persons With Disabilities (PWDs) which means that an employer may employ more than 2% of its total workers from among the disabled ones but never less than that limit. The current applicable quota for disabled persons in the public and private sector for all provinces is 2% except in Punjab where the quota was raised to 3% in 2015.

The law requires that terms and conditions of employment of disabled persons can’t be less favorable than those of other persons employed in an establishment. Therefore a disabled person can’t be hired on lower wages and benefits.

The law also provides that in calculating the percentage of the posts in an establishment for the purpose of employment of disabled persons, the fraction of 0.5 and above will count as a whole number.

The law requires that an establishment, which does not employ a disabled person, has to pay for the Disabled Persons Rehabilitation Fund each month the sum of money it would have paid as salary or wages to a disabled person had he had been employed.

An establishment, which opts out of the employment of disabled persons, will deposit each month to the above fund at least 14,000 rupees, if it employs a total of 100 workers.

The fund thus collected is utilized for establishment of training centers for disabled persons, financial assistance to disabled persons who are unable to undertake any employment, disbursement of stipends or scholarships to disabled persons receiving training, welfare of disabled persons and providing artificial limbs, surgical therapy and medical treatment to disabled persons.

If you are a person with disability (disabled person), you first have to get registered as “disabled person”. The disabled persons are registered in the employment exchanges or the office of District Labor Officer (the employment exchanges exist only in the Sindh Province). However, a person is declared disabled only when he/she is declared disabled by the medical assessment board and is issued a disability certificate. A medical officer from District Headquarters Hospital usually heads this assessment board. Once the competent board decides about the disability of a person and issues the requisite certificate, then the said person can now get job on the disabled persons quota. The assessment board also indicates, in its report to the provincial government, the nature of work in which a specific disabled person can be employed or training requirement in a vocation or trade.

In order to avail these benefits, you must first obtain the following documents.

  • Employment exchange card (You can get it after getting yourself registered with Employment Exchange Office, available in Sindh only) or
  • Disability certificate (provided by district assessment board in all provinces)
  • Special Computerized National Identity Card for disabled (also available in all provinces)

Q.4      Explain in detail the primary concerns of the parents of the disabled children. How these concerns are addressed in our community?

In our daily life, we face various challenges which show us the limit of our human nature. When we face those challenges and overcome them, we truly become God’s greatest creation. Scott Hamilton said that “The only disability in life is a bad attitude.” This kind of mentality is what is required for everyone who wants to find happiness in life. No benefit comes from thinking over spilled milk, one should always have a positive attitude and know that there is light at the end of the tunnel. Let us discuss about some of the challenges that is faced by disabled people. 

  1. Accessibility – The world around us is not a walk in the park. We have to face several obstacles in every step we take. This is much worse for physically disabled people. They mostly move around in wheelchairs or use crutches. So, moving around freely is not a luxury that they can afford. Moreover, the public places that we have, are rarely made keeping in mind the comfort of people with disabilities. There are no ramps, or the hallways are too narrow for them to move. Nowadays, many wheelchairs are automated, and buildings are constructing a private residential elevator to make the movement of the disabled people a little bit easier.
  2. Education – education is a basic right for all humans, in a perfect world, education would be free and available to everyone, as dreamed by Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, but the reality is far from it. A large number of children with disabilities remain out of school and thus they are deprived of basic education. They are not able to run the race of life like the other normal kids. To solve this issue, several education institutions have been opened which focuses on the education of these kids with special needs, they learn the Braille System and adaptive technology helps them lead a better life.
  3. Access to healthcare – In a country of 1.3 billion people, the health care system is already very stretched. Poor people do not have access to proper healthcare and the people with disabilities are worse off. Often, people with intellectual disabilities are mistreated by the health workers and this makes matters worse. This can be only solved by proper awareness and empathy. The disabled people find the speck of good in these situations and help each other in whatever way possible. Thus, it is requested that everyone should make a donationto ensure NGOs are able to cater to their healthcare needs in a much better way.
  4. Myths and stereotypes– Certain sections of the Indian population have had financial development in the last decades, there have been social upliftment and overall progress but still there remains a dark orthodox nature in our culture which seems to have stuck with us like a leech. When we interact with people with disabilities, we fall victim to certain myths that are born out of our lack of knowledge and empathy towards such people.
  5. Feeling of being ignored– When we interact with a physically challenged person, it does not mean that, he is also suffering from visual or hearing impairment. This thought process often stops us from interacting and communicating with such people. These disability barriers need to be torn down, which is only possible for more awareness.
  6. Lack of employment– Employment of any citizen is based upon his education and skills he has picked up along the way. When these people are deprived of basic education, they are bound to fall behind other candidates for that job. The government has introduced schemes which should guarantee jobs for disabled people.
  7. Feeling of being incompetent– Disabled people need more time to do a particular work than other normal people. The disability barriers stop him from performing basic tasks with ease. This makes the person with disabilities that he is pulling his mates down and if filled with sorrow and anger.
  8. Teased and abused– Often people find satisfaction in putting others down. They find superiority in bullying the weak and underprivileged. Disabled people often find themselves at the receiving end of such violent and disgusting actions.
  9. Being patronized– People with special needs often hear things like, “I know what you are going through” or “I know this must be hard.” These kinds of words never do justice to the problems those people face and the troubles they go through every day. A normal person can’t know exactly what that person is feeling.
  10. Relationships – Human beings are complicated. They judge others on a set of parameters that may or may not apply to all situations. These prejudices are the root cause of all mistrust and misunderstanding. Most disabled people are desired as life partners, this often brings sadness and loneliness to their lives.

All these issues can be dealt with if people become more understanding and have patience when they deal with people with special needs. Work for disabled should be made available, this will give them financial independence and provide them with satisfaction in life. We should make our surroundings more accessible to disabled people. The homes for the disabled should be designed in such a way that it is more comforting to them.All these issues can be dealt with if people become more understanding and have patience when they deal with people with special needs. Work for disabled should be made available, this will give them financial independence and provide them with satisfaction in life. We should make our surroundings more accessible to disabled people. The homes for the disabled should be designed in such a way that it is more comforting to them.

Q.5      How can the family of a person with disability can assess the vocational aptitude of him/her? Give examples to support your answer.

Individuals with disabilities often are stigmatized, encountering attitudinal and physical barriers both in work and in daily life. Although federal legislation protects the inherent rights of individuals with disabilities, that legislation cannot always protect them from subtle forms of discrimination and prejudice. School-age students with disabilities often have negative school experiences related to their having a disability, and school counselors, administrators, and teachers can help to create more positive school experiences that promote their academic, career, and personal/social growth. By examining the attitudes and behaviors of school staff and students as well as systemic factors related to the school, school counselors in collaboration with other school personnel can determine areas for intervention and respond accordingly. Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities are positively correlated with attitudes toward mainstreaming. Although mainstreaming and inclusion are conceptually different (see Alley, n.d., for definitions of these concepts), both relate to the idea of integrating students with disabilities into regular education classrooms. There is no research to support positive correlations between attitudes about inclusion and attitudes toward students with disabilities; however, given the positive correlation between attitudes toward students with disabilities and attitudes toward mainstreaming, it seems likely that such a relationship might exist.

Disabilities can be temporary (such as a broken arm), relapsing and remitting, or long-term. Types of disabilities may include:

  • Hearing loss
  • Low vision or blindness
  • Learning disabilities, such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, dyslexia, or dyscalculia
  • Mobility disabilities
  • Chronic health disorders, such as epilepsy, Crohn’s disease, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, migraine headaches, or multiple sclerosis
  • Psychological or psychiatric disabilities, such as mood, anxiety and depressive disorders, or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Asperger’s disorder and other Autism spectrum disorders
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

Students may have disabilities that are more or less apparent. For instance, you may not know that a student has epilepsy or a chronic pain disorder unless she chooses to disclose or an incident arises. These “hidden” disorders can be hard for students to disclose because many people assume they are healthy because “they look fine.” In some cases, the student may make a seemingly strange request or action that is disability-related. For example, if you ask the students to rearrange the desks, a student may not help because he has a torn ligament or a relapsing and remitting condition like Multiple Sclerosis. Or, a student may ask to record lectures because she has dyslexia and it takes longer to transcribe the lectures.

A student’s disclosure of a disability is always voluntary. However, students with disabilities may feel nervous to disclose sensitive medical information to an instructor. Often, students must combat negative stereotypes about their disabilities held by others and even themselves. For instance, a recent on disability stereotypes found that undergraduates with and without learning disabilities rated individuals with learning disabilities as being less able to learn or of lower ability than students without those disabilities. In fact, students with learning disabilities are no less able than any other student; they simply receive, process, store, and/or respond to information differently (National Center for Learning Disabilities). Similarly students with physical disabilities face damaging and incorrect stereotypes, such as that those who use a wheelchair must also have a mental disability. Additionally, those students with “hidden disabilities” like epilepsy or chronic pain frequently describe awkward situations in which others minimize their disability with phrases like “Well, you look fine.”

In Barbara Davis’s Tools for Teaching, she explains that it is important for instructors to “become aware of any biases and stereotypes [they] may have absorbed….Your attitudes and values not only influence the attitudes and values of your students, but they can affect the way you teach, particularly your assumptions about students…which can lead to unequal learning outcomes for those in your classes.” As a way to combat these issues, she advises that instructors treat each student as an individual and recognize the complexity of diversity.

  • A statement in your syllabus inviting students with disabilities to meet with you privately is a good step in starting a conversation with those students who need accommodations and feel comfortable approaching you about their needs. Let the student know times s/he can meet you to discuss the accommodations and how soon the student should do so. Here are two sample statements:
  • Provide an easily understood and detailed course syllabus. Make the syllabus, texts, and other materials available before registration.
  • If materials are on-line, consider colors, fonts, and formats that are easily viewed by students with low vision or a form of color blindness.
  • Clearly spell out expectations before the course begins (e.g., grading, material to be covered, due dates).
  • Make sure that all students can access your office or arrange to meet in a location that is more accessible.





I started this website to help the students, You can find the latest scholarships on, a website that guides you according to your field of study. I will provide the information that students will need to apply for international scholarships in the US, UK, Canada, Australia, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Leave a Comment